Length: 39-46 mm
This beautiful damsel boasts a bright metallic red thorax in the males, with cream-colored striping. Occasionally the male's coloration is more of a reddish bronze than bright red. Females have metallic green thoraxes, or else bronzy green.
The spot at the base of the wings is usually bright red in the male. Females may have a red spot too, but more often their spot is a subtle amber.
Don't hang around ponds looking for this one. While occasionally found at large lakes, the species most typical habitat is a sunny riverbank. You will find the American Rubyspots perched on plants along the bank, or on rocks in the river itself.
One of the nice things about American Rubyspots is that they have a long flight season, at least June to September over most of their range.
Johnson noted that the territories last only one day. If a male returns to the area the following day it may choose the same perch, or one a short distance away, or one that is on a more distant section of the river bank.
When the tandem pair is safely perched,
the female soon curves her abdomen toward the male's external
genitalia and the pair form the wheel position, typically maintaining
this position for 3-4 minutes. After breaking from the wheel,
the pair rests for a few minutes, then flies in tandem to an oviposition
site. Usually the male perches on vegetation growing in the water
and walks backwards toward the water until the female is fully
submerged. The female oviposits on the underwater plants while
the male performs guard duty, driving off even large insects like
Anax junius that stray too near. Males guard for up to
40 minutes. Interestingly, Johnson noted that "Despite many
hours of observation I have never seen a female return to the
surface." He concluded that either the females remain submerged
for a very long time or else they emerge downstream from where
they enter. Surely many are victims of predation or the strong
Another of Johnsons interesting observations was that, if the couple is separated at any time in the courtship or mating, the entire process must start again from the beginningthey seemingly cannot just pick up where they left off.
Five years later, Johnsons study of Hetaerina americana mating was supplemented by that of Bick and Sulzbach (1966). They confirmed many of Johnsons observations. They also added that when they observed ovipositing females, they had invariably seen the female surface once again, 7-52 minutes later.
McCafferty (1979) reported seeing some 200 Hetaerina americana perched on river rocks at dusk in Indiana, flying up repeatedly to capture emerging mayflies, then return to the rocks to eat them.
The female American Rubyspot replaces the male's reds with bright green or bronzy green. This coloration is not only on the thorax, but on the dorsal surface of the abdomen as well. On this individual, the spot on the base of the wings is more amber than red. Note how much thicker the female's abdomen is, compared with that of the male (see top photo on this page).
This female American Rubyspot has brilliant metallic green coloration on the face and thorax and on the top of the abdomen. It also sports a bright red spot at the base of its wings, and white stigmas.