Most Biting Midges are in the 1-6 mm range, with only the occasional leviathan reaching more than 6 mm. As the common name says, these flies bite (the females do, anyway), taking a blood meal from humans or other vertebrates, or from insects. In some cases females follow a predatory lifestyle rather than feed on blood alone. Common names applied to this group, in addition to Biting Midges, include Punkies, Sand Flies, and Nosee'ums.
Bites of the adults can spread diseases to both humans and livestock.
In this family some larvae are aquatic, while others develop in decaying plant matter.
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American Insects site